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Design of Foundations of transmission towers in different Soils

Design of Foundation of Transmission Towers in Different Soils

1. All foundation shall be of RCC. The design and construction of RCC structures shall be carried out as per IS:456 and minimum grade of concrete shall be M-20.


2. Limit state method of design shall be adopted.


3. Cold twisted deformed bars as per IS:1786 or TMT bars shall be used as reinforcement.


4. Foundations shall be designed for the critical loading combination of the steel structure and or equipment and/or superstructure.

5. If required protection to the foundation, shall be provided to take care of any special requirements for aggressive alkaline soil, black cotton soil or any soil which is detrimental/harmful to the concrete foundations.

6. All structures shall be checked for sliding and overturning stability during both construction and operating conditions for various combination of loads.

7. For checking against overturning, weight of soil vertically above footing shall be taken and inverted frustum of pyramid of earth on foundation should not be considered.

8. Base slab of any underground enclosure shall also be designed for maximum ground water table. Minimum factor of safety of 1.5 against bouncy shall be ensured.

9.The tower and equipment foundations shall be checked for a factor of safety of 2.2 for normal condition and 1.65 for short circuit condition against sliding, overturning and pullout.

Guidelines for Classification of Foundations of Transmission Towers in Different Soils

The transmission tower may be situated in different locations. Power System transmission networks are being sprading all over the world. The soil condition of different places are also different. Depending upon the nature of soil, the types foundation of transmission towers should be selected and constructed accordingly. We have tried to give you a clear and brief Guidelines for classification of Foundations of transmission towers in different Soil conditions.

SLName of soil encounteredType of foundation to be adopted
1In good soil (silty sand mixed with clay)Normal Dry
2Where top layer of Black Cotton soil extends upto 50% of the depth with good soil there after.Partial Black Cotton
3Where top layer of black cotton soil exceeds 50% and extends upto full depth or is followed by good soil.Black Cotton
4Where top layer is good soil upto 50% of the depth but the lower layer is a black cotton soilBlack Cotton
5Where subsoil water is met at 1.5 ml or more below the ground level in good soilWet
6Good soil locations which are in surface water for long period with water penetration not exceeding 1.0 m below ground level (e.g. paddy fields).Wet
7In good soil where subsoil water is encountered between 0.75m and 1.5m depth from ground level.Partially submerged
8In good soil where subsoil water is encountered within 0.75 m depth from ground levelFully Submerged
9Where top layer of normal dry soil extends upto 85% of the depth followed by fissured rock without presence of water.Dry Fissured Rock
10Where top layer is lissured rock followed by good soil/sandy soil with/without presence of waterSpecial foundation
11Where normal soil/tissured rock extends upto 85% of the depth followed by hard rock Dry fissured Rock with under cut in Fisured Rock combined with anchor bar for hard rock design
12Where fissure rock os encountered with subsoil water within 0.75m or below 0.75m from G.L. (Top layer may be either a good soil or black cotton soil)Submerged Fissured Rock
13Where Hard Rock is encountered at 1.5 m or less below ground level. Hard Rock
14Where Hard Rock is encountered from 1.5 m to 2.5m below G.L. (Top layer being good soil)with chimney for Normal Soil Hard Rock Foundation
15Where hard rock is encountered from 1.5m to 2.5 m below G./L. (Top layer either in Black cotton) soil or fissured Rock Hard Rock Foundation design with chimneys designed for wet black cotton soil.
16Where fissured rock is encountered at the bottom of pit (with black cotton soil at top)Composite Foundation
17Where hard rock is encountered at bottom with water and black cotton soil at top and hard rock layer depth is less than 1.5 m.Hard Rock
18Sandy soil with clay content not exceeding 10%Dry Sandy soil foudation
19Sandy soil with water table in the pitsWet sandy soil design to be developed considering the depth of water
20Where top layer upto 1.5 m below G.L. is normal dry soil and thereafter hard soil/murrumNormal dry with undercut
21Where bottom layer is marshy soil with top layer of good soil/fissured rock/black cottonSoil investigation is to be carried out and special foundation design to be developed.
22Where the top layers are a combination of clinker mixed with firm soil, gravel and stone chips upto 60% of foundation deapth from ground level followed by hard murrumNormal dry with undercut
23Where top layers are combination of hard murrum, soft rock etc. followed by yellow/black clayee soilSpecial foundation design is to be developed after carrying out soil investigation.
Any other combination of soil not covered above shall require development of special foundation design.

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