Working Principle of Alternator

Construction of Alternator

Rating of Alternator

Armature Winding

Armature Winding of Alternator

Winding Factor

Armature Reaction of Alternator

Phasor Diagram for Synchronous Generator

Induction Generator

Working Principle of DC Generator

Construction of DC Generator

Commutation in DC Machine

Methods of Improving Commutation

Frog Leg, Drum and Gramme Ring Winding

Types of DC Generators

Magnetization Curve of DC Generator

Characteristic of Separately Excited DC Gen

Characteristic of DC Shunt Generator

Characteristics of DC Series Generator

Characteristic of DC Compound Generators

Armature Reaction in DC Machine

DC Generators Performance Curves

Applications of DC Generators

Testing of DC Machine

Swinburne’s Test of DC Machine

Hopkinson’s Test

Differential Protection of Generator

In these types of generators the field windings, armature windings and external load circuit all are connected in series as shown in figure below.

Therefore, the same current flows through armature winding, field winding and the load.

Let, I = I_{a} = I_{sc} = I_{L}

Here, I_{a} = armature current

I_{sc} = series field current

I_{L} = load current

There are generally three most important **characteristics of series wound DC generator** which show the relation between various quantities such as series field current or excitation current, generated voltage, terminal voltage and load current.

## Magnetic or Open Circuit Characteristic of Series Wound DC Generator

The curve which shows the relation between no load voltage and the field excitation current is called **magnetic or open circuit characteristic curve**. As during no load, the load terminals are open circuited, there will be no field current in the field since, the armature, field and load are series connected and these three make a closed loop of circuit. So, this curve can be obtained practically be separating the field winding and exciting the DC generator by an external source. Here in the diagram below AB curve is showing the magnetic **characteristic of series wound DC generator**. The linearity of the curve will continue till the saturation of the poles. After that there will be no further significant change of terminal voltage of DC generator for increasing field current. Due to residual magnetism there will be a small initial voltage across the armature that is why the curve started from a point A which is a little way up to the origin O.

## Internal Characteristic of Series Wound DC Generator

The **internal characteristic** curve gives the relation between voltage generated in the armature and the load current. This curve is obtained by subtracting the drop due to the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction from the no load voltage. So, the actual generated voltage ( E_{g}) will be less than the no load voltage (E_{0}). That is why the curve is slightly dropping from the open circuit characteristic curve. Here in the diagram below OC curve is showing the internal characteristic or total characteristic of the series wound DC generator.

## External Characteristic of Series Wound DC Generator

The external characteristic curve shows the variation of terminal voltage (V) with the load current ( I_{L}). Terminal voltage of this type of generator is obtained by subtracting the ohomic drop due to armature resistance (R_{a}) and series field resistance ( R_{sc}) from the actually generated voltage ( E_{g}).

Terminal voltage V = E_{g} – I(R_{a} + R_{sc})

The external characteristic curve lies below the internal characteristic curve because the value of terminal voltage is less than the generated voltage. Here in the figure OD curve is showing the external characteristic of the series wound DC generator.

It can be observed from the characteristics of series wound DC generator, that with the increase in load (load is increased when load current increases) the terminal voltage of the machine increases. But after reaching its maximum value it starts to decrease due to excessive demagnetizing effect of armature reaction. This phenomenon is shown in the figure by the dotted line. Dotted portion of the characteristic gives approximately constant current irrespective of the external load resistance. This is because if load is increased, the field current is increased as field is series connected with load. Similarly if load is increased, armature current is increased as the armature is also series connected with load. But due to saturation, there will be no further significance raise of magnetic field strength hence any further increase in induced voltage. But due to increased armature current, the affect of armature reaction increases significantly which causes significant fall in load voltage. If load voltage falls, the load current is also decreased proportionally since current is proportional to voltage as per Ohm’s law . So, increasing load, tends to increase the load current, but decreasing load voltage, tends to decrease load current. Due these two simultaneous effects, there will be no significant change in load current in dotted portion of external characteristics of series wound DC generator. That is why series DC generator is called constant current DC generator.